Comparison between White box & Black box testing :
White box testing is concerned only with testing the software product, it cannot guarantee that the complete specification has been implemented. Black box testing is concerned only with testing the specification, it cannot guarantee that all parts of the implementation have been tested. Thus black box testing is testing against the specification and will discover faults of omission, indicating that part of the specification has not been fulfilled. White box testing is testing against the implementation and will discover faults of commission, indicating that part of the implementation is faulty. In order to fully test a software product both black and white box testing are required.
White box testing is much more expensive than black box testing. It requires the source code to be produced before the tests can be planned and is much more laborious in the determination of suitable input data and the determination if the software is or is not correct. The advice given is to start test planning with a black box test approach as soon as the specification is available. White box planning should commence as soon as all black box tests have been successfully passed, with the production of flowgraphs and determination of paths. The paths should then be checked against the black box test plan and any additional required test runs determined and applied.
The consequences of test failure at this stage may be very expensive. A failure of a white box test may result in a change which requires all black box testing to be repeated and the re-determination of the white box paths. The cheaper option is to regard the process of testing as one of quality assurance rather than quality control